Stop Motion Animation
Stop motion animation uses time-lapse photography techniques. Time-lapse photography predated the first cartoon animations. The first stop-motion films were "Un Bon Bock" (Emile Reynaud, France, 1884), "Matches an Appeal" (England, 1899), and "The Enchanted Drawing" (USA, 1900, 1 min 26 seconds at 18 fps) filmed by Thomas Edison.
History of Stop Motion Animation
Willis O'Brien was one of the pioneers of stop-motion animation, using a small model and the superposition of people on film technique to create King Kong (1933). O'Brien studied the movements of gorillas in zoos and other large animals to develop his characterization of Kong.
Clay animation or Claymation stop-motion films use Plasticine or foam to model creatures and animals. Nick Park is one of the most well-known claymation directors. His studio is Aardman Animation Studios (Wallace and Gromit). His first short film "Creature Comforts" (1993) won him his first Oscar. Another earlier example is Tony Hart's "Morph" (1977).